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8 Key Shona Marimba / Xylophone from Zimbabwe - Hand Made.
 

8 Key Shona Marimba / Xylophone from Zimbabwe - Hand Made.

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8 Key Shona Marimba / Xylophone from Zimbabwe - Hand Made. Product DescriptionLook at this awesome sounding 8 key marimba from Zimbabwe!Cool traditional design, maracas shells make up the underside providing good tone.Hi folks up for sale is a pretty cool marimba hand made in Zimbabwe. Good tone and cool traditional design. This could make a great gift. Thanks for looking.MarimbaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaMarimbaClassical marimba, model Antonko AMC-12Percussion instrumentClassificationPercussionHornbostel–Sachs classification111.212(Sets of percussion sticks)Playing rangeRelated instrumentsMarimbaphoneMusiciansSeelist of marimbistsBuildersSeelist of marimba manufacturersThemarimba(/məˈrɪmbə/) is apercussion instrumentconsisting of a set of wooden bars struck withmalletsto produce musical tones. Resonators attached to the bars amplify their sound. The bars are arranged as those of apiano, with theaccidentalsraised vertically and overlapping the natural bars (similar to a piano) to aid the performer both visually and physically. This instrument is a type ofidiophone, but with a more resonant and lower-pitchedtessiturathan thexylophone.The chromatic marimba was developed in Chiapas, Mexicofrom the local diatonic marimba, an instrument whose ancestor was a type of balafon that African slaves built in Central America.Modern uses of the marimba include solo performances,woodwindandbrassensembles, marimbaconcertos,jazz ensembles,marching band(front ensembles),drum and bugle corps, andorchestral compositions. Contemporary composers have used the unique sound of the marimba more and more in recent years.HistorySee also:Xylophone § HistoryandMusic of Guatemala"The Marimba" from "The Capitals of Spanish America" (1888)Xylophones are widely used in music of west and central Africa. The namemarimbastems fromBantumarimbaormalimba, 'xylophone'. The word 'marimba' is formed fromma'many' andrimba'single-bar xylophone'.Diatonic xylophones were introduced to Central America in the 16th or 17th century. First historical record of Mayan musicians usinggourdresonator marimbas inGuatemalawas made in 1680, by the historianDomingo Juarros. It became more widespread during the 18th and 19th centuries, as Mayan and Ladino ensembles started using it on festivals. In 1821, marimba was proclaimed the national instrument of Guatemala on its independence proclamation.[5]The gourd resonators were later replaced by harmonic wooden boxes, and the keyboard was expanded to about fivediatonicoctaves. Variants with slats made of steel, glass or bamboo instead of wood appeared during the 19th century.In 1892,Corazón de Jesús Borras Moreno, a musician fromChiapas, expanded marimba to include thechromatic scaleby adding another row of sound bars, akin to black keys on the piano.[6]The namemarimbawas later applied to the orchestra instrument inspired by the Latin American model. In the United States, companies likeDeaganandLeedycompany adapted the Latino American instruments for use in western music. Metal tubes were used as resonators, fine-tuned by rotating metal discs at the bottom; lowest note tubes were U-shaped. The marimbas were first used for light music and dance, such asVaudevilletheater and comedy shows.[4]Clair Omar Musserwas a chief proponent of marimba in the United States at the time.French composerDarius Milhaudmade the ground-breaking introduction of marimbas intoWestern classical musicin his 1947Concerto for Marimba and Vibraphone. Newly invented four-mallet grip enabled playingchords, and the innovation enhanced the interest for the instrument.[4]In the late 20th century,modernistandcontemporarycomposers found new ways to use marimba: notable examples includeLeoš Janáček(Jenufa),Carl Orff(Antigonae),Karl Amadeus Hartmann,Hans Werner Henze(Elegy for Young Lovers),Pierre Boulez(Le marteau sans maître) andSteve Reich.[4]ConstructionFolk and popular marimbaBarsMarimba bars are typically made of either wood or synthetic material.Rosewoodis the most desirable, whilePadaukis a popular affordable alternative. Bars made from synthetic materials generally fall short in sound quality in comparison to wooden bars, but are less expensive and yield added durability and weather resistance,[7]making them suitable for outdoor use; marimbas with wooden bars are usually played inside because the bars are susceptible to pitch change due to weather.Bubinga(Guibourtia demeusei) andmahoganyhave also been cited as comparable to rosewood in quality for use as marimba bars.[8]The specific rosewood,Dalbergia stevensonii, only grows in Southern Guatemala and Belize, formerly the British Honduras, hence its common name. This wood has aJanka ratingof 2200, which is about three times harder thanSilver Maple. The bars are wider and longer at the lowest pitched notes, and gradually get narrower and shorter as the notes get higher. During the tuning, wood is taken from the middle underside of the bar to lower the pitch. Because of this, the bars are also thinner in the lowest pitch register and thicker in the highest pitch register.In Africa, most marimbas are made by local artisans from locally available materials.Marimba bars produce their fullest sound when struck just off center, while striking the bar in the center produces a more articulate tone. On chromatic marimbas, the accidentals (black keys) can also be played on the space between the front edge of the bar and its node (the place where the string goes through the bar) if necessary. Playing on the node produces a sonically weak tone, and the technique is only used when the player or composer is looking for a muted sound from the instrument.Contra Bass Marimba: range of G1-G3Bass Marimba: range of C2-F3RangeThere is no standard range of the marimba, but the most common ranges are 4 octaves, 4.3 octaves and 5 octaves; 4.5, 4.6 and 5.5 octave sizes are also available.4 octave: C4 to C7.4.3 octave: A2 to C7. The 3 refers to three notes below the 4 octave instrument. This is the most common range.4.5 octave: F2 to C7. The .5 means "half";4.6 octave: E2 to C7, one note below the 4.5. Useful for playing guitar literature and transcriptions.5 octave: C2 to C7, one full octave below the 4 octave instrument, useful for playing cello transcriptions e.g.Bach'scello suites.Bass range (varies, but examples range from G1-G3 or C2-F3)The range of the marimba has been gradually expanding, with companies likeMarimba Oneadding notes up to F above the normal high C (C7) on their 5.5 octave instrument, or marimba tuners adding notes lower than the low C on the 5 octave C2. Adding lower notes is somewhat impractical; as the bars become bigger and the resonators become longer, the instrument must be taller and the mallets must be heavier in order to produce a tone rather than just a percussive attack. Adding higher notes is also impractical because the hardness of the mallets required to produce the characteristic tone of a marimba are much too hard to play with in almost any other, lower range on the instrument.The marimba is a non-transposing instrument with no octave displacement, unlike thexylophonewhich sounds one octave higher than written and theglockenspielwhich sounds two octaves higher than written.PVC resonatorsResonatorsPart of the key to the marimba's rich sound is itsresonators. These are tubes (usuallyaluminum) that hang below each bar.In the most traditional versions, various sizes of naturalgourdsare attached below the keys to act as resonators; in more sophisticated versions carved wooden resonators are substituted, allowing for more precise tuning of pitch. In Central America and Mexico, a hole is often carved into the bottom of each resonator and then covered with a delicate membrane taken from the intestine of a pig to add a characteristic "buzzing" or "rattling" sound known ascharleo.[9]In more contemporary-style marimbas, wood is replaced byPVCtubing. The holes in the bottoms of the tubes are covered with a thin layer of paper to produce the buzzing noise.The length of the resonators varies according to the frequency that the bar produces. Vibrations from the bars resonate as they pass through the tubes, which amplify the tone in a manner very similar to the way in which the body of a guitar or cello would. In instruments exceeding 4½ octaves, the length of tubing required for thebassnotes exceeds the height of the instrument. Some manufacturers, such asDeMorrowandMalletech, compensate for this by bending the ends of the tubes. This involves soldering smaller straight sections of tubes to form "curved" tubes. Both DeMorrow and Malletech use brass rather than aluminium. Others, such asAdamsandYamaha, expand the tubes into large box-shaped bottoms, resulting in the necessary amount of resonating space without having to extend the tubes. This result is achieved by the custom manufacturerMarimba Oneby widening the resonators into an oval shape, with the lowest ones reaching nearly a foot in width, and doubling the tube up inside the lowest resonators.Resonator tuning involves adjusting "stops" in the tubes themselves to compensate for temperature and humidity conditions in the room where the instrument is stored. Some companies offer adjustment in the upper octaves only. Others do not have any adjustable stops. Still some companies (Malletech and DeMorrow) offer full range adjustable stops.On many marimbas, decorative resonators are added to fill the gaps in the accidental resonator bank. In addition to this, the resonator lengths are sometimes altered to form a decorative arch, such as in the Musser M-250. This does not affect the resonant properties, because the end plugs in the resonators are still placed at their respective lengths.MalletsThe mallet shaft is commonly made of wood, usuallybirch, but may also berattanorfiberglass. The most common diameter of the shaft is around 8mm. Shafts made of rattan have a certain elasticity to them, while birch has alm
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